European Pears: Pyrus Communis

varieties in this section generally share these traits (unless stated otherwise)
European Pears bloom relatively late but before apples and sour cherries.  They are one of the easier species to grow, provided fireblight resistant varieties are planted in areas with wet springs.  Pear scab, psylla, and blister mites are an issue for some as well.  Varieties that are labeled "highly resistant" to fireblight have been reported to perform quite well in the deep south. 
European pears can take a very long time to begin producing, but there are rootstocks, such as OHxF 87, that induce early bearing and knock the expected number of years down to 2-5 (usually 3-4), depending on the variety.

Abbe Fetel

🔍
Developed in France (1866)
Storage
• 2 months
Afflictions
• Susceptible to scab and fireblight.

Abbe Fetel is compatible with quince rootstock.

Arganche

🔍
Originated in Macedonia.  Introduced to the US in 1960.
Zone
• 4
Ripens
🍐
• early
Growth
• semi-dwarf
Fruit
• 50g/fruit
Afflictions
• Resistant to scab.

Atlantic Queen

🔍
Zone
• 5
Ripens
🍐
• late?
Fruit
• up to 1.5 pounds
Afflictions
• Resistant to fireblight.

Atlantic Queen can be a bland and astringent pear when grown in the wrong climate or location.  It will likely require hot summers and full sun exposure.

Bartlett

🔍
Originated in Aldermaston, England (1765-1770).
Alias
• Williams
Zone
• 5     ◦ 500-600 chill hours
Blooms
💮
• mid
Ripens
🍐
• mid (mid-late)
Storage
• 3 months
Afflictions
• Susceptible to fireblight.

Blake's Pride

🔍
US446 x US505.  Selected in Ohio (1977).
Zone
• 5     ◦ 800 chill hours
Ripens
🍐
• mid-late
Afflictions
• Resistant to fireblight.  Somewhat resistant to scab.

Bosc

🔍
Originated in Belgium or France (early 1800s).
Zone
• 5a     ◦ 500-600 chill hours
Ripens
🍐
• late
Color
• brown russet skin
Storage
• 6 months
Afflictions
• Susceptible to fireblight.

Comice

🔍
France (1849)
Zone
• 5 (4)     ◦ 600 chill hours
Ripens
🍐
• late
Afflictions
• Susceptible to fireblight.

Conference

🔍
Originated in Hertfordshire, England, introduced in 1894.
Zone
• 5
Ripens
🍐
• very late
Afflictions
• Susceptible to fireblight.

Flemish Beauty

🔍
chance seedling.  Originated in Belguim (1810).
Zone
• 4
Flowers
• partially self-fertile
Ripens
🍐
• late
Afflictions
• Somewhat susceptible to fireblight.

Gem

🔍
Sheldon x US62563-004 (US309 (US-Michigan 437 x Roi Charles de Waurtemburg) x US539).  Selected in Beltsville, Maryland (1981).
Zone
• 4
Blooms
💮
• mid
Ripens
🍐
• mid-late     ◦ 1 week after Bartlett
• precocious
Storage
• 6 months
Afflictions
• Resistant to fireblight.

The flavor of Gem is mild and crisp off the tree, making it somewhat reminiscent of an Asian pear.  Placing it in cold storage for at least three weeks will give it more flavor and allow it to soften.

Harrow Crisp

🔍
Bartlett x US56112-146.  Selected in Harrow, Ontario (1979).
Ripens
🍐
• mid (mid-late)
• precocious
Storage
• short
Afflictions
• Resistant to fireblight.

Harrow Crisp can be harvested over a period of 2 weeks, but the earlier they are picked, the longer they will store (for a maximum of 2 months).

Harrow Delight

🔍
Purdue 80-15 (Old Home x Early Sweet) x Bartlett.  Selected in Harrow, Ontario (1973).
Zone
• 4     ◦ 800 chill hours
Blooms
💮
• mid-late
Ripens
🍐
• mid? (early-mid)     ◦ 2 weeks before Bartlett?
• precocious
Growth
• moderate vigor
Afflictions
• Resistant to fireblight and scab.

Harrow Gold

🔍
Harvest Queen x Harrow Delight.  Introduced in Harrow, Ontario (2002).
Ripens
🍐
• mid     ◦ 1.5 weeks before Bartlett
Storage
• 1.5 months
Afflictions
• Resistant to fireblight.

Harrow Sweet

🔍
Bartlett x Purdue 80-51 (Old Home x Early Sweet).  Selected in Harrow, Ontario (1980).
Zone
• 3b
Blooms
💮
• mid     ◦ shortly after Bartlett
Ripens
🍐
• late     ◦ 3 weeks after Bartlett
• more precocious than most pear varieties
Growth
• moderate vigor
Storage
• up to 3 months (as long as it wasn't picked too late)
Afflictions
• Somewhat resistant to fireblight.  Resistant to scab?

Harrow Sweet is graft compatible with quince rootstock.

Harvest Queen

🔍
Michigan 572 x Bartlett.  Selected in Harrow, Ontario (1972).
Ripens
🍐
• mid     ◦ 1 week before Bartlett
Afflictions
• Resistant to fireblight.

Highland

🔍
Bartlett x Comice.  Developed in New York.
Zone
• 4?
Ripens
🍐
• late     ◦ 3 to 4 weeks after Bartlett
Storage
• implied to store quite well, even without cold storage.
Afflictions
• Susceptible to fireblight.

Honeysweet

🔍
Seckel x US220 (Vermont Beauty x Roi Charles De Wurtenburg).  Originated in Lafayette, Indiana (1957).
Zone
• 3b?
Flowers
• partially self-fertile
Ripens
🍐
• mid-late     ◦ 1 week after Bartlett
Growth
• semi-dwarf
Storage
• stores well
Afflictions
• Resistant to fireblight.

Honeysweet has a higher level of self-fertility than most European pears, but the fruit will be smaller without cross-pollination.  It is often described as an improved "Seckel", a parent of Honeysweet.

Hudar

🔍
parentage unknown, sibling of Nova.  Originated in New York (1988).
Zone
• 2
Ripens
🍐
• early-mid?
Afflictions
• Somewhat resistant to fireblight.

Luscious

🔍
SD E31 x Ewart.  Introduced in South Dakota (1973).
Zone
• 3b? (4)
Flowers
• pollen sterile
Ripens
🍐
• mid
Afflictions
• Resistant to fireblight.

Magness

🔍
Seckel x Comice
Zone
• 5     ◦ 400 chill hours
Flowers
• pollen sterile
Ripens
🍐
• mid (mid-late)     ◦ slow to bear
Growth
• very vigorous
Afflictions
• Resistant to fireblight (less so than its sibling 'Warren'). 
Resistant to scab?

Maxine

🔍
Ohio (1845)
Zone
• 5
Ripens
🍐
• mid-late
Afflictions
• Highly resistant to fireblight.

Moonglow

🔍
US-Michigan 437 (Barseck x Bartlett) x Roi Charles de Waurtemburg
Zone
• 5     ◦ 400-500 chill hours
Ripens
🍐
• mid
• somewhat precocious?
Growth
• vigorous
Afflictions
• Resistant to fireblight.

Moonglow produces poor quality fruit in the south.

Nova

🔍
parentage unknown, sibling of Hudar.  Originated in Hammond, New York.
Zone
• 2
Ripens
🍐
• mid-late?
Growth
• low vigor?
Afflictions
• Somewhat resistant to fireblight and scab.

Parker

🔍
Selected in Minnesota (1920)
Zone
• 2a
Ripens
🍐
• late (mid-late)
Afflictions
• Susceptible to fireblight and scab.

Perdue

🔍
Flowers
• double petal
Blooms
💮
• early-mid
Afflictions
• Resistant to fireblight.

Potomac

🔍
Moonglow (US-Michigan 437 x Roi Charles de Waurtemburg) x Beurre d'Anjou
Afflictions
• Resistant to fireblight.

Rescue

🔍
Zone
• 5
Blooms
💮
• mid (mid-late)
Ripens
🍐
• mid
Storage
• 2-3 months

Seckel

🔍
chance seedling.  Seckel is believed to have originated in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania before 1760.  It was named and introduced in the early 1800's.
Zone
• 4     ◦ 500 chill hours
Ripens
🍐
• late? (mid-late)
Growth
• semi-dwarf, 15-20ft tree on non-dwarfing rootstock
Fruit
• 1.5" W fruit
Storage
• does not store for long
Afflictions
• Somewhat resistant to fireblight.

Shenandoah

🔍
Max Red Bartlett x US56112-146 (US309 (US-Michigan 437 x Roi Charles de Waurtemburg) x OP).  Selected in Kearneysville, West Virginia (1985).
Ripens
🍐
• late     ◦ 4 weeks after Bartlett
• precocious?
Storage
• Shenandoah may store for up to 5 months. It is reported to be moderately acidic during the first 2 months.
Afflictions
• Resistant to fireblight.

Southern Bartlett

🔍
bud mutation of Bartlett.  Discovered in Abbeville, Louisiana around 1969.
Zone
•    ◦ low chill
Blooms
💮
• very early
Ripens
🍐

• precocious
Afflictions
• Highly resistant to fireblight (frequently gets a few mild strikes after bloom).

Southern Bartlett produces fruit that is fairly poor in quality.

Summer Blood Birne

🔍
believed to have originated in Germany
Zone
• 5
Color
• pink flesh
Afflictions
• Resistant to scab.

Warren

🔍
Seckel x Comice.  Originated at Hattiesburg, Mississippi, introduced in 1976.
Zone
• 5a (4)     ◦ 600 chill hours
Ripens
🍐

• slow to bear
Afflictions
• Highly resistant to fireblight.

Like the other varieties labeled as "highly resistant", Warren can survive fireblight in the deepest parts of the south where its sibling 'Magness' may struggle. 

Warren can take nearly a decade to start producing on standard rootstocks.

Asian Pears: Pyrus pyrifolia

varieties in this section generally share these traits (unless stated otherwise)
Asian pears bloom earlier than European pears, and they may not overlap.  However, they produce smaller trees and begin bearing much sooner.  Resistance to fireblight and pseudomonas are often required for survival, but I do not recall hearing about scab or psylla being a nuisance.  Pseudomonas seems to generally occur on the first 2 feet of the tree, so grafting more susceptible varieties fairly high may help protect the tree.

Atago

🔍
may be a cross between Nijisseiki and Imamura Aki
Zone
• 4b
Blooms
💮
•    ◦ extended bloom
Ripens
🍐
• late
Color
• brown russet skin

Chojuro

🔍
chance seedling.  Japan (1895).
Zone
• 5a (4b)
Ripens
🍐
• late
Color
• brown russet skin
Afflictions
• Resistant to scab and alternaria spot.
Susceptible to fireblight.

Hosui

🔍
(Kikusui x Yakumo) x Yakumo.  Selected in Japan 1963.
Zone
• 4b     ◦ 300-400 chill hours
Ripens
🍐
• mid-late     ◦ roughly 1 week after Shinseiki
Color
• brown russet skin
Fruit
• up to 350g
Storage
• up to 3 months if harvested a little early
Afflictions
• Resistant to scab and alternaria spot.
Susceptible to fireblight and pseudomonas.

The flavor of Hosui is considered to be quite good in hot summer climates, but it may produce fruit of moderate quality, with a more pronounced tartness, when grown elsewhere.

Ichiban Nashi

🔍
Asahi x Kitsukawasei.  Selected in Japan 1969.
Zone
• 4b     ◦ 400 chill hours
Ripens
🍐
• mid
Color
• brown russet skin
Afflictions
• Resistant to alternaria spot.
Susceptible to fireblight.  Somewhat susceptible to pseudomonas.

Kikusui

🔍
Taihaku x Nijisseiki.  Introduced in Japan (1927).
Zone
• 4b     ◦ 500 chill hours
Ripens
🍐
• mid-late
Color
• yellow skin
Afflictions
• At least Somewhat resistant to fireblight.

Korean Giant

🔍
Chojuro x Cheongsilri.  Released in South Korea (1969).
Alias
• Dan Bae, Olympic, Arirang
Zone
• 5a (4a)
Blooms
💮
• mid
Ripens
🍐
• very late     ◦ roughly 2 weeks after Ya Li
Color
• brown russet skin
Fruit
• fruit can weigh well over 1lb
Storage
• stores well, even outside of the refrigerator
Afflictions
• Resistant to fireblight.

Kosui

🔍
Kikusui x Wasekozo.  Released in Japan (1959).
Ripens
🍐
• mid     ◦ a few days after Shinsui and Ichiban Nashi
Color
• brown russet skin
Afflictions
• Resistant to alternaria spot and scab.
Susceptible to fireblight and pseudomonas.

Mishirasu

🔍
Discovered in Hokkaido, Japan (1887), but it may have originated in China.
Zone
• 5a (4b)
Ripens
🍐
• late
Color
• brown russet skin
Fruit
• up to 1lb

Nijisseiki

🔍
chance seedling.  Japan (1888).
Alias
• 20th Century
Zone
• 4b     ◦ 300-400 chill hours
Ripens
🍐
• mid-late
• biennial bearing
Color
• yellow skin
Storage
• 5 months
Afflictions
• Resistant to pseudomonas.
Susceptible to scab and fireblight.

Raja

🔍
Zone
• 4b     ◦ no damage after -22F
Color
• brown russet skin
Afflictions
• Raja is supposedly disease resistant.  This may be referring to fireblight.  I have seen it get pseudomonas on the first 1 to 2.5 feet of a young tree that looked quite severe, but it apparently shook it off both times (update: the tree never came out of dormancy the year after).  Pseudomonas killed 'Shinsui' (grafted within this range) on its first attempt (Shinsui grafted ~4 feet high never got it).

Raja ripens well in cool summer climates.

Seuri

🔍
Originated in China?
Zone
• 5a (4b)
Ripens
🍐
• very late
Color
• brown russet skin
Storage
• roughly 1 month
Afflictions
• Resistant to fireblight.

Seuri supposedly has a unique flavor.

Shinko

🔍
Nijisseiki x ? (possibly Waseaka or Amanogawa).  Japan (1941).
Zone
• 5a     ◦ 450 chill hours
Ripens
🍐
• very late     ◦ roughly 1 or 2 weeks before Korean Giant
Color
• brown russet skin
Fruit
• up to 1lb
Storage
• 3 or 4 months
Afflictions
• Highly resistant to fireblight.  Resistant to pseudomonas.

Shinko requires a hot climate to fully develop its flavor.  While other Asian pears have this problem as well, Shinko seems to be the most consistent offender.

Shinseiki

🔍
Nijisseiki x Chojuro.  Released in Japan (1945).
Alias
• New Century
Zone
• 4a?     ◦ 250-400 chill hours
Ripens
🍐
• mid-late     ◦ roughly 1 week before Hosui
• precocious
Color
• yellow skin
Afflictions
• Less susceptible to fireblight and pseudomonas than some others?

Asian pears are known for being quite precocious, especially when they are compared to European pears, but Shinseiki may be able to produce as soon as the year after planting.

Shinsui

🔍
Kikusui x Kimizuka Wase.  Selected in Japan (1956).
Zone
• 4b
Ripens
🍐
• mid
Color
• brown russet skin
Fruit
• 8oz/fruit
Storage
• 1 to 1.5 months (short)
Afflictions
• Somewhat resistant to fireblight?
At least Somewhat susceptible to pseudomonas.

Yakumo

🔍
Akaho x Nijisseiki
Zone
• 4b
Ripens
🍐
• early-mid? (mid)
Color
• yellow skin

Yoinashi

🔍
Zone
• 5a (4b)
Color
• brown russet skin
Afflictions
• Somewhat resistant to pseudomonas and fireblight.

Ussurian Pears: Pyrus ussuriensis

Golden Spice

🔍
Introduced in Minnesota (1949)
Zone
• 2
Flowers
• partially self-fertile?
Afflictions
• Resistant to fireblight.

Krazulya

🔍
Pozdnyaya x Malenkaya Radost.  Originated in Russia.  Not entirely sure if its a Pyrus ussuriensis.
Zone
• 3a
Ripens
🍐
• early-mid?

Vekovaya

🔍
Originated in Russia.  Not entirely sure if its a Pyrus ussuriensis.
Zone
• 3a
Ripens
🍐
• mid-late?

Pyrus x bretschneideri

Daisui Li

🔍
Kikusui (P. Pyrifolia) x Tsu Li (P. bretschneideri).  California (1985).
Zone
• 4? (5)
Ripens
🍐
• late
Fruit
• up to 1lb
Storage
• 6 months
Afflictions
• Resistant to fireblight.

Shin Li

🔍
Kikusui (A) x Tsu Li (P. bretschneideri).  California 1988.  P#6076
Zone
• 4? (5)
Ripens
🍐
• late
Storage
• 6 months
Afflictions
• Resistant to fireblight?

Tsu Li

🔍
Pyrus x bretschneideri.  Originated in the Shantung Province of northeastern China.
Zone
• 5     ◦ 300 chill hours
Blooms
💮
• early-mid?
Ripens
🍐
• very late
Storage
• Tsu Li can store for over 6 months and should be stored for some time before eating.
Afflictions
• Somewhat resistant to fireblight.

Ya Li

🔍
Pyrus x bretschneideri.  Originated in China.
Zone
• 4? (5)     ◦ 200-300 chill hours
Blooms
💮
• early-mid?
Ripens
🍐
• late (very late)     ◦ roughly 4 weeks after Nijisseiki and 2 weeks before Korean Giant
Afflictions
• Somewhat resistant to fireblight.

European x Asian

Ayers

🔍
Garber (A x E) x Anjou (E).  Originated in Tennessee, introduced in 1954.
Zone
•    ◦ 600 chill hours
Flowers
• pollen sterile
Blooms
💮
• mid
Afflictions
• Highly resistant to fireblight.

Early Gold

🔍
Ure (P. Ussuriensis x P. Communis) x ?
Zone
• 2
Ripens
🍐
• mid?     ◦ 1.5 weeks before Ure

Early Gold is an improved seedling of 'Ure'.

Garber

🔍
P. pyrifolia x P. communis.  Originated in Pennsylvania (before 1880).
Ripens
🍐
• mid-late (late)     ◦ 1-2 weeks before Kieffer
Afflictions
• Highly resistant to fireblight.

Golden Boy

🔍
P. communis x P. pyrifolia.  Wakulla County, Florida.
Zone
•    ◦ low chill
Blooms
💮
• early
Ripens
🍐

• precocious
Afflictions
• Highly resistant to fireblight.

Goldenboy may be an improved seedling or bud sport of LeConte.  It is also quite similar to Fan Stil.

Keiffer

🔍
Bartlett (E) x ? (A)
Zone
• 5     ◦ 200-300 chill hours
Blooms
💮
• early-mid
Ripens
🍐
• late
• precocious
Afflictions
• Highly resistant to fireblight (frequently gets a few mild strikes after bloom).

Kieffer has issues with mislabeling.

LeConte

🔍
P. communis x P. pyrifolia
Zone
•    ◦ 250-300 chill hours
Blooms
💮
• early
Afflictions
• Highly resistant to fireblight.

There are possibly two 'LeConte' pears, one of which is supposedly similar to Kieffer and the other similar to Golden Boy and Fan Stil.  The latter appears to be more common.

Maxie

🔍
Nijisseiki (A) x Max Red Bartlett (E)
Zone
• 5
Blooms
💮
• early-mid
Ripens
🍐
• late? (mid-late)
Afflictions
• Resistant to scab.

Ooharabeni

🔍
? (A) x Max Red Bartlett (E)
Ripens
🍐
• mid-late

Orient

🔍
P. communis x P. pyrifolia.  Introduced in Chico, California (1945).
Zone
•    ◦ 350 chill hours
Blooms
💮
• early-mid
Afflictions
• Highly resistant to fireblight.

Patten

🔍
Orel 15 x Anjou.  Selected in Iowa around 1915.
Zone
• 3 (2)
Ripens
🍐
• mid-late
Afflictions
• Resistant to scab.
Somewhat susceptible to fireblight.

Southern King

🔍
Tennessee (E) x Hosui? (A).  Harris County, Texas.
Zone
•    ◦ 600 chill hours
Afflictions
• Highly resistant to fireblight.

Spalding

🔍
Pineapple? x unknown.  Selected in Georgia (1957).
Zone
•    ◦ 350 chill hours
Flowers
• partially self-fertile
Ripens
🍐
• mid-late
Afflictions
• Highly resistant to fireblight.

Spalding is crunchy like an asian pear.

Summercrisp

🔍
unknown parentage, believed to be P. communis x P. ussuriensis.  Minnesota (1933).
Zone
• 2b
Ripens
🍐
• mid
• somewhat precocious?
Storage
• 1.5 to 2 months
Afflictions
• Resistant or Somewhat resistant to fireblight.

Summercrisp has a taste and texture closer to that of an Asian pear.

Sunrise

🔍
75% P. communis x 25% P. pyrifolia?
Ripens
🍐
• mid (early-mid)     ◦ 2 weeks before Bartlett
Storage
• 3 months
Afflictions
• Resistant to fireblight and scab.

Tennosui

🔍
Tennessee (E) x Hosui? (A).  Harris County, Texas.
Zone
•    ◦ 550-600 chill hours
Afflictions
• Highly resistant to fireblight.

Ure

🔍
P. ussuriensis x P. communis.  Manitoba 1978.
Zone
• 3a
Ripens
🍐
• mid-late?
Afflictions
• Resistant to fireblight?